There are different ways to infect humans with parasites. Statistics indicate that a common cause of death in humans is the presence of parasites in the body and infectious diseases.
In blood plasma, scientists have found fungi, bacteria and even algae. The most common are intestinal worms.
Parasites can live inside a person for a long time. In 60% of cases, chronic and oncological diseases are caused by their vital activity. With prolonged exposure to microorganisms, internal organs and the entire immune system suffer.
Methods of infection with parasites
There are different ways to get infected with parasites. Parasites are microorganisms that live at the expense of another organism and are biologically and ecologically related to it. Parasites can feed on juices, tissues, products that a person consumes, remaining in the body temporarily or permanently.
You can become infected with helminths in the following ways:
- By dirty hands.
- In contact with the ground.
- For insect bites.
- If you eat an undercooked piece of meat or fish.
- Otherwise, wash fruits and vegetables before eating them.
- If the contact is illiterate with animals.
- In contact with a sick person with helminths.
Worm eggs can be found in soil, water, dirty fruits and vegetables, and meat or fish that have not undergone sufficient heat treatment.
In some cases, an infection can occur as a result of an insect bite, but it is extremely rare, since it is mainly the eggs of helminths that enter the body with food. Dirty hands can also become a source of helminthiasis infection.
From a sick person carrying pinworms, you can also get infected. The pinworm crawls through the anus and lays its eggs in the anus. They, in turn, can remain on the underwear, being in the hands of a person. The larvae can stay on the toilet, the front door handle, on other objects. If the rules of personal hygiene are not observed, they enter the bodies of other family members. If helminths are found in one of the family members, all household members should undergo treatment.
Waterborne infection occurs by drinking unboiled water or bathing.
What types of helminths exist?
The most common group of intestinal worms, which includes roundworms. These include hookworms, roundworms, pinworms, heartworms, and trichinella.
The second large group includes protozoan or single-celled parasites. These are amoebas, giardia, neospores, cryptosporidium, etc.
Entameba chistolytic infection can occur by drinking contaminated water. In this case, loose stools appear, there are severe pains in the abdomen, vomiting. Sometimes, in severe cases, such manifestations complicate the liver. People often confuse amoebic dysentery with a viral infection.
On the walls of the stomach, millions of single-celled parasites can exist and grow, which do not allow proper absorption of nutrients necessary for the body.
Characteristic signs of giardiasis
Symptoms of a parasitic infestation are:
- Accumulation of gas in the stomach.
- Uneven stools with pieces of undigested food.
- Increased sweating.
- Frequent abdominal pain.
- Liquid stools.
In the absence of treatment for parasites, over time a person will begin to lose weight and often become ill due to the depletion of the immune system. Of course, it is not advisable to be guided only by the symptoms to identify the parasites. It is necessary to carry out a series of stool and blood tests to detect helminths. Treatment largely depends on the degree of infection. In folk medicine, there are many recipes for the treatment of helminthiasis, in difficult cases it is better to resort to a medical method of treatment.
Classification of helminths
Worms are divided into flat and round.
- Trematodes, including schistosomes, opisthorchis, etc.
- Cestodes - echinococcus, tapeworm, alveococcus.
Roundworms or nematodes:
The following types of helminths are the most common.
This type of worm is heterosexual and outwardly resembles a needle 0. 4-2. 6 cm long. Females are considered large and can produce up to 300 larvae per day.
The routes of transmission are mainly through swimming in polluted waters. Infection occurs through a person's mucous membranes and through accidental ingestion of dirty water while bathing. Once in the body, the larva transforms into an adult within a day, capable of producing hundreds of similar organisms.
The schistosome reaches puberty after entering the human venous system with blood flow. An individual's eggs can be found in the intestines, urine, mucous membranes. After a bowel movement, the schistosome begins its journey in the same way.
This parasite can remain in the human body for decades, causing irreparable harm to the patient. It is not the schistosomes themselves that are dangerous, but their eggs. They accumulate on the internal organs and cause damage with their tips, damaging the tissues, which often causes various ulcers.
There are symptoms by which a person can determine the presence of schistosomes in the body:
- small appetite;
- enlargement of the liver and change in the spleen;
- poor intestinal motility;
- stomach ache;
- diarrhea or constipation;
- sharp weight loss;
- bleeding in the intestines;
- pain when urinating;
- allergic reactions;
- general weakness.
Tapeworms are tapeworms that can grow to gigantic lengths. Thus, the length of an adult individual is on average 0. 5 cm. The cestode female is capable of laying up to 200, 000 eggs during the year.
Due to special devices on the heads in the form of suckers, tapeworms are tightly attached to the walls of the intestine. In this case, the whole body suffers. These worms are especially dangerous for young children, as they exhaust the body with their vital activity and cause anemia in a short time.
The routes of infection are fecal-oral, that is, it is dirty hands, fruits and vegetables. The larvae, once in the intestines, spread through the veins of the whole body, entering the liver, heart and even the oral cavity. A number of larvae die in this case, while the rest are swallowed again.
The main signs of infection with parasites:
- nausea and vomiting;
- yellowing of the skin;
- frequent colds;
- development of bronchitis and pneumonia.
Prevention of parasitic infestation
Since there are many ways to infect parasites, it is worth following certain rules to protect yourself and your family members from possible ingestion of worm larvae.
- Observance of personal hygiene rules. Frequent hand washing will prevent parasites from entering the human body. Especially children have to learn this, because they often take hands and various objects in their mouths.
- Thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables with running or boiled water.
- Extermination in living quarters of flying and crawling insects (flies, cockroaches), as they are carriers of helminth eggs.
Many experts believe that every person is a carrier of parasites to one degree or another, so you need to cleanse the body from time to time.