If a person has subcutaneous parasites, it is important to see a doctor quickly and diagnose the problem. It is also necessary to select a treatment regimen that will take into account the type of worms and their location. What parasites can live in human skin, what symptoms bother the patient at the same time, what kind of diagnostic measures will help determine the disease, and what drug treatment is carried out when the diagnosis is confirmed?
Reasons for the appearance
Subcutaneous helminths, entering the human body, may not manifest for years. As the worm matures, the infected person develops severe symptoms, which indicate that something is wrong with the body and that medical attention is needed. The larvae of the worm enter the body of the host in the following ways:
- from the bites of infected insects;
- by drinking the water in which the larvae are found;
- through skin contact with an infected person.
To determine what kind of parasites have gotten under a person's skin, you need to contact an infectious disease doctor who will send the patient for research. After a series of diagnostic tests, the doctor identifies the type of worm and prescribes appropriate treatment. It is not recommended to try to eliminate subcutaneous parasites on your own, as this can make the disease worse and lead to life-threatening complications.
Types of subcutaneous helminths, symptoms and site of localization
Dranculosis - worms under the human skin that enter the body by drinking dirty water, live in countries with a hot climate. The parasites are localized on the back, abdomen and legs, namely in the subcutaneous layer. Adults reach heights of up to 150cm, and pets can also be carriers. When the larvae enter the human body, they migrate into the bloodstream, enter internal organs and the subcutaneous layer. Adults reach sexual maturity after 12 months.
Due to the fact that skin parasites in a patient secrete their waste products, the skin at the site of their localization swells, itches, and when the tumor reaches a large size, bursts, releasing new larvae. Larvae in the leg cause complications such as blood poisoning, joint problems, and suppuration in the parasite's habitats.
Dirofilaria - parasites of the skin in humans, which enter the body of the host through the bites of insects, often mosquitoes. The main host of heartworm is a domestic animal which is bitten by a mosquito, transferring the larvae with the bite into the human body. The incubation period lasts 2-3 years, while the infected person during this period does not care about any symptoms. The subcutaneous dirofilaria worm not only affects the skin of a person, the migrating larvae penetrate the sclera of the eyes, resulting in visual impairment and, if inadvertently treated, complete loss. In addition, the worm can live in the scrotum and affect other genitals of the patient.
During the process of vital activity, intradermal parasites secrete toxic waste, resulting in itching and burning. With the growth of the parasite, the area of the lesion on the skin also increases. To eliminate the worm, the affected area is resected with the extraction of heartworm.
Scabies mites are parasites that live under the skin and can only be seen under a microscope. Settling in the subcutaneous layer, the mite develops vital activity, damaging the integrity of the dermis, due to which the patient is afraid of severe itching. Feeding on the human epithelium, the tick grows fully inside the patient's body, and once puberty is reached, it lays eggs. Most often, the parasite is localized on the back, hands and fingers, on the soles of the legs, the outer surface of the thigh, on the chest, in the armpits, on the genitals, on the scalp. Infection with a scabies mite is clearly visible visually, and if the disease is not treated, complications such as furunculosis, dermatitis, eczema develop.
The main vector of the disease is the infected insect that infects a person when bitten. When the larva enters the human body, symptoms of fever develop, which is accompanied by a rash on the skin. After that, the disease does not make itself felt for several years. When the larvae form, a person exhibits symptoms such as deterioration in general well-being, weakness and an increase in temperature. On the neck, torso and back, rashes appear in the form of eczema, ulcers, warts, and lumpy growths. If the disease is not treated in time, the person suffers from vision problems, osteoarthritis.
Schistosomiasis - subcutaneous worms that enter the human body on contact with contaminated water. The worms infect the patient's genitals, causing itching, allergic rashes, dermatitis. With schistosomiasis, the kidneys and the liver are affected. Parasites in the testes and scrotum cause inflammation, lumps, and itching. It is important to diagnose the disease in time and start drug therapy.
Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, which are introduced into the human body by drinking contaminated water and the meat of a sick animal. Helminths live under the skin, in the eyes, in the tissues of internal organs, muscles and even in the head. If the larvae are located in the muscles and under the skin, there is pain and burning. The affected area under the skin, in which the helminth is located, gradually gets bigger and denser.
Subcutaneous parasites in humans are diagnosed directly in the office of an infectious disease doctor who examines the patient. The doctor assesses the lesions, which determine the neglect of the disease. To confirm the diagnosis, the patient is referred for blood work and scratch samples. For a more detailed diagnosis, instrumental methods are used that will help determine the location of parasites and the number of adults in the body. When the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor draws up a treatment regimen.
Treatment of subcutaneous parasites in humans
The treatment of parasites that affect the skin is based on the use of a broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent. In case of inflammation, it is indicated to use antibiotics, vasoconstrictor and antihistamines.
With heartworm, when the worm is concentrated in one place and its movement is limited, an operation is prescribed, in which an incision is made in the affected part and the worms come out through the skin with the help of adoctor. Surgical removal is indicated for massive damage caused by large worms to internal organs, the sclera of the eyes and the brain. You should not try to cure this type of helminthiasis on your own using traditional methods, as they are usually ineffective with heavy invasion, and in some cases can harm the patient.
As subcutaneous worms and mites enter the human body through the skin, on contact with an infected carrier, the first thing to do is to respect the rules of hygiene: always wash your hands before eating, keepkeep the room clean, change your underwear and bedding regularly, prevent mosquitoes and other insects from entering the residential building.
If a person prefers to relax in countries with a tropical climate, then it is worth paying attention in advance to the quality of drink, food and place to rest. If insects and animals live in the selected area and cause parasitic disease, it is worth consulting with your doctor about safety rules that will help prevent infection.